Organized Crime – The Mafia

The “MAFIA” is the paradigm of the organized crime. You ally; there is who reduces the concept of this to the phenomena “MAFIA.”

Actually, no there is a MAFIA, but before several organizations, with different designations and common manners of criminal planning and acting way usually designated by “mobsters.”

The Italian writer Leonardo Sciascia, there are about 30 years, it defined the Mafia as “an association of criminals with ends of the associates” illicit enrichment, that it is put as middleman, imposed by the violence, between the property and the work, between the production and the consumption, between the citizens and the State ” while, in another perspective, sociologist Raimondo Catanzaro defined her recently as “she elaborates of the violence.”


The “MAFIA” (Italy – American) had origin in Sicily, in the centuries XII or XIII, since the successive occupations that this island of the South of Italy suffered along the times, assumed as organized insurrection. Their cultural roots are rural, just if transferring for the great cities (mainly Palermo) in the first decades of this century, implanting their traditional methods of action quickly: the “protector pays” in other words, the extortion. First in the fairs and markets, to proceed further on into sectors and areas like trade and building societies, demanding percentages progressively higher and, later, ending for constituting their own construction companies, that started to dominate the market.

Though, the decisive factor that it still marks it’s today evolution, it happens in the seventies when, with the dismantlement of the clandestine laboratories and of “French Connection” nets (in Marseilles – South of France), the MAFIA takes ownership of the European traffic of heroine and corresponding bulky profits.

Like this, of a subordinate position (support to the traffic of the product for Sicily) in a short space of time it started to process at their own laboratories the originating from morphine it reorganizes the presence in the of the international traffic scene. It becomes supplier from 65 to 70% of the heroine consumed in the E.UA and in the nineties, it assumes a growing intervention in the traffic of cocaine to Europe. At the same time actualizing the intervention methods and areas adapted to features more “entrepreneurs” and “executives.

Types and methods

Today, it is usual to speak in Mafia of the East Countries, Turkish Mafia, Japanese Mafia, Chinese Mafia, and other. Actually there are organized crime groups, that historical and culturally nothing has to do with the Sicilian Mafia, tends in common with this just the methods of criminal acting ways.

In Italy, type mobster’s organized criminality this divided in four different branches, out of traditional regional borders in the South of Italy: “COSA NOSTRA”, in Sicily, “CAMORRA”, in Naples; “N” DRANGHETTA”, in the it would Silence; “SACRED CORONA UNITA”, in the southeast.

“COSA NOSTRA” is the most important, involving about 140 families composed among 30 to 300 base mobsters, the soldiers or “homo d” onore”. it is a structure articulate, unitary and nested.

Neapolitan A”Camorra” and Calabrian “N”dranghetta”, as well as “Sacred Corona Unita”, don”t have this structure vertically nested and compartmentalized but yes a horizontal structure, intending the “families” the control of the illegal activities in the whole territory of regional action (in the it “Cosa Nostra”, to avoid larger conflicts, each “family” has a own territory, at the level of the neighborhood).

The action basis of these organizations is the traditional activities of extortion (“protection pays”), manipulation of working contracts, drugs traffic and money laundry.

“N”dranghetta” is the most sanguinary and violent, is tended specialized in kidnappings, i for areas of Canada, U.S.A., Australia, South of France and Germany (where we found Calabrian communities).

“Camorra” reconverted their activities of cigarettes smuggling for the most lucrative activities of drugs traffic assuming a paper of almost monopoly of cocaine among South America (namely Peru and Colombia) and Europe, having “bases” in you vary European countries. In the traffic of heroine and hashish, it operates in the smaller spaces left by the activities of the it “Sews Nostra”, the one which has a relevant rule in almost monopoly in the international traffic of these products to the U.S.A.Their money laundry is done with resource to institutions of credit that controls and to companies that indirectly owns, fundamentally in the building , transports and of the industry sectors.

b) The Mafia turned into an American problem – starting from the beginning of the century, accompanying the migratory currents of Sicilians for the “New World”, many were the “mobsters” that settled in the U.S.A. developing their “families”, the image and structure of the organization – Sicilian mother, maintaining a relationship of “branch”. “Cosa Nostra” in spite of the deep relationships of collaboration that, for common interest, the two organizations maintains with the Mafia.

While the Americans have among their main activities the exploration of game houses and prostitution, specializing at the illegal markets, the Sicilians refuse these activities, tending to articulate the action in the illegal markets with a convenient presence in the legal markets.

c) In the European east, the economical and politics opening, conjugated with an evident authority crisis in several States in democratization process, gave an easy way to the operational development of the organized crime.
In Russia there are about 3 000 “gangs” that integrate hundreds of thousands of elements, with ramifications in all of the social steps. In other territories of the Soviet former-union (namely in the area of the Baltic), in Poland, Hungary, in former Czechoslovak and Bulgaria, organized criminal groups have been implanting and I win an active expression. With roots in the old “nomenkulatura” or in the groups that then dominated the market, these “Mafia of the East” are devoted fundamentally to the the traffic of drug (namely in Russia and Czech Republic), but also in weapons, prostitution and traffic of luxery cars (mainly in Poland face the territorial proximity with Germany), as well as to the I traffic and smuggling of products of first need, medicines, disks, cassettes and videos, as well as luxury products (perfumes, clocks, precious stones.).

They used methods type Sicilian violence.
The mobsters nets in Russia, for instance, have an ethnic base in their constitution (azeris in the leadership; tchechenians as operational armed; uzbeques and tadjiques in the traffic of opium; Ukrainian and Russian in the traffic of popies and synthetic drugs; tartars in the game, night clubs and terrorism; the Georgian ones in the stolen cars; the daguestaneses in the great bandit’s), they are individualistic and mutually conflicting, without any central organism of control (to not to be it “Half” that congregates only 20 great groups of the area of Moscow).

Like this brief historical overview organized crime represents that offence segment to which are reported the illegal activities which can affect more political economic and social fields, activities that are constantly developed through different means by individual associations with a well-defined hierarchy, with a specialized structure and the purpose of obtaining illicit profits at very high levels.

– Narcotics traffic – in every year hundreds of persons are involve in narcotics traffic and many tones of drugs are confiscated. The cocaine and heroin and the most wanted.
– Person’s traffic is a new form of organized crime. Young women and children are transported from Eastern Europe to Western Europe for prostitution and organs transplant.
– Arts traffic – today, one of the most prosperous businesses is the arts traffic. Many values are brought outside of countries.
– Stolen cars from Western Europe especially are sell in Eastern Europe.
– Arms dealing have become a new business, especially for the ex-Soviet Union states.
– Money laundering. Many western businessmen used the Eastern European bank systems for money laundering.
– The minor delinquency the antechamber of the organized crime. The little offenders unidentified yet for the perpetration of robberies, thefts and false money placation, represents the engrossed segment by a severe selection by organized crime groups.
– Corruption of the main public officials is a new and dangerous form of organized crime. The organized crime groups succeeded to destroy the people’s trust through bribe and influence traffic.
– illegal goods: goods that are illegal as such; the production of, trade in and sometimes also possession of such goods are punishable offences; think of for example narcotic substances and forged brand cigarettes.
– illegal trade in legal goods; this concerns black markets for goods that involve evasion of taxes, duties or import duties and are traded unlawfully on black markets; think of legally produced cigarettes, alcoholic beverages and fuels.
– illegal provision of services; think of facilitation of illegal immigrants (human smuggling) and illegal employment in prostitution (human trafficking).

The definition contains the punishment requirement to ensure that those who commit rather harmless offences are not classed under organised crime.

Very curious is a overlooking comparison on some Eastern activities in general and some other regions:

Organized crime has become a general phenomenon in the Eastern Europe and in the ex-Soviet Union states.
Ukraine – Caucasian Mafia is the most structured criminal organization, based on the blood ties. These organizations act on the same principles as the Italian mob.

Criminal groups act especially in the drug dealing, involving much deeper to create a new, honest look, through the opening of new firms and casinos, which helps to money laundering.
Russia – the illegal guns, ammunition and explosives traffic is a more and more often- practiced activity by the Russian crime organization.

The main sources of obtaining of those mentioned above are the military dumps of the ex-Soviet army and the military units that belonged to the large military industrial complex, converted to private or mix firms.
Poland – the most known kind of organized crime from Poland is still the narcotic traffic.
The synthetic narcotics production and selling internal and external market is higher and higher.
Slovakia, a country situated at the crossroads between East and West is in the attention of Mafia organizations with a well-known tradition that included it in the main drugs, guns and not for long radioactive substances traffic routes.
Slovenia is situated on the most frequently used Balkan-shipping route of the heroine. Besides, Slovenia is also recognized as a big LSD drug consumer.

Organized Crime Funding and Operational Development

Any organization, legal or illicit, has high costs, fixed and variables, for the operations, needing money for the development of their activities. In general terms, in the world of the organized crime the liquidity of money is one of the main concerns.The illegal activities carried out by the sub-world of the organized crime generates, for system, with more or less frequency, bulky monetary affluences to the criminal organizations, being the level national or transnational.

International organisms have, for instance, dear that the groups mobsters” activities generated, in the year of 1992, incomes in about a thousand million U.S.D in Hungary, 2 to 3,5 thousands millions in the U.S.A., 3 thousand million of stories in the space of E.U., 5 thousands millions in Japan.

From where are these incomes? Of illegal activities as drugs traffic, weapons black market sells, exploration of the ” protection payments” (“racket”, extortion), of the exploration of contracts in public construction buildings or structures, from smuggling of several products, from gambling, among others.

Also there is a group of legal activities as businesses involving companies, casinos, financial institutions . They to do the wealth and money to circulate and somehow to justify the incomes obtained by the organizations in an illicit way. It is the camouflage methodology.

Still, the structures of organized crime stops the legal control and they explore a “black market” (national or transnational), illicit, that it allows the change of a wide variety of products and services: forged money for drug, weapons for nuclear technology, cocaine, heroine, and others But they also explore the finance market legally instituted, namely for consummation of their second financing methodology: the money laundry.

For money laundry is understood that each group realize operations, mainly financial that consist of moving away the obtained wealth from the original illegal source, turning it “clean”, to the eyes of society, monetary masses of money that, in the origin, are “dirty”, because they were obtained by an illicit way. As example, the “Cartel of Cali” that, in ended in the eighties, it whitened 57 million dollars – of which 36 million were in Europe – through the creation of countless ghost – societies and of consecutive movements of deposits in 268 braches in 118 banks of Europe, U.S.A. and Panama).

This amount is capable to be (reverse) invested, without any suspicions, in any economic or commercial industrial or financial activities of the current market, working the criminal organizations then as true business “empires.”
Like this, the camouflage activities (regarding not only persons, but also business) and the money laundry (that refers, normally about 30 to 50% of the global incomes obtained by the organization) as a result of multiple other previous illegal activities, always generators (also) of incomes, they represent another of the aspects more significantly common of the organized criminality, in covered financing.


The inherent common denominators THE STRUCTURE, SAFETY and FINANCING of the criminal organizations already allowed characterizing the organized criminality.
Still in relationship to a large part of the organized crime (except partly, the terrorist organizations), we can find another common element: the type of Operational Development.
The Operational Development of the activities of organized criminality settles down, usually, according to the following vectors:
a) Extent of national, international and transnational action;
b) Permanent Operational and stabilized, with concerns of tactics and of strategic order;
c) Conjugation of legal businesses and illicit businesses;
d) Chronological Interface and multiple accomplishments of crimes.

The operational development of the organized criminality has these factors.

a) – the reason of being of this criminality type is inside the enlarged extent of territorial activity and permanent organization and stabilized in the prosecution of the criminal activities;
b) – the reason of effectiveness of the organizations, for besides the execution of their objectives I (namely, the economical profits), is into in their flexibility face the deterrent circumstances, in dynamics of tactical and strategic articulation in the capacity of dissimulation of the illicit financing sources (illicit businesses), through the creation and maintenance of licit businesses (real or simulated) that, allow to justify and to “clean” the obtained global profits.

At the level of the businesses illicit/crimes, are strategies those that, best allows the “normal” prosecution of the activities of financing of the organization. The practices of the corruption, covering, a traffic of influences and control of the authorities are usual and typical.

The organization strategically to mislead difficulties and to avoid (larger) threats to the operational development of the activities chose as tactics for the organization to obtain profit, by e.g. traffic of drugs, the extortion and kidnappings, traffic of weapons (or, now, also, the one of nuclear products), smuggling, among others.

The legal businesses more “sought” by the criminal organizations are spread in several sectors, as: the finance market (e.g. detention and/or participation in credit institutions, leasing societies, brokers.) and the market of capitals – preferred by excellence for practices of bulky operations of money laundry -, the casinos a, hotels, the building societies and other businesslike import – export firms (often based in taxes paradises – off – shores).

Actually, the infiltration of the organized crime in legal businesses constitutes an additional tactic for effective reduction of the risk of detection of the net, for the covering and legitimating the incomes produced that, like this, less suspicions get up as for it’s ownership. Still, the insert in activities and legitimate commercial operations, namely at the international level, offers to the criminal organizations the possibility to use the legal circulation and transport of products for part of their illicit cargo.

c) – The criminological reason of the organized crime is partially, in the multiple accomplishment of illicit and, the criminal interaction.

The operational development of the nets of organized crime give priority to the practice of multiple illicit criminal, be in the optical of safety expressed in:
– crimes of corruption;
– traffic of you influence;
– threats,;
– crimes of homicide, corporal offenses, coactions and threats,
– Drainage of incomes;
– crime of money laundry;
– falsifications ;
– Tax frauds.
In another perspective, for the great majority of the criminal organizations, in their practices have a permanent and stabilized type of crimes, as for instance drugs smuggling associating in the operational development with traffic of weapons, stolen cars, and technological components.

Traffic Tickets

What are traffic tickets?

Traffic tickets are writs issued by the traffic police officers to road users whenever they cross traffic rules. The road users who receive these traffic tickets range from motorists, car drivers to bus drivers. These traffic ticket cases are heard in the traffic courts and the tickets are issued there.

Types of traffic tickets

Traffic tickets are generally issued for two major types of traffic crimes namely,

1. Moving violation
2. Non-moving violation

Moving violation is defined as those traffic crimes that are committed when the vehicles are in motion. The most frequented type of moving violation is over-speeding, that is, when a motorist exceeds the speed limit of that road or highway.

Non-moving violations are those traffic violations that are committed when the vehicle is stationary. The most common non-moving violation is the parking violation, that is, when the vehicle is parked in a no-parking zone or if the vehicle is parked in an unlawful way.

Two-wheeler riders are prone to commit moving-violations more than four-wheeler drivers commit the same. At the same time, four-wheeler drivers (car owner, in particular) are prone to commit non-moving violation like parking violations.

Levels of traffic tickets

There are different levels of traffic tickets given to those who commit traffic crimes. The punishment level depends upon the intensity of the crime committed.

The most common punishment given for traffic crimes are for those who do parking violations. Generally, traffic police issue a small amount as fine to those who park their vehicles in “no parking” zones or if they park them in unlawful ways. Issuing fines are the least severe traffic tickets given to the offenders. However, the amount of money charged as fine will also vary depending upon the severity of the crime.

Crimes like over-speeding, disobeying the lane rules, traveling in one-way roads, careless and reckless driving, disturbing the public while on the drive and damaging public properties etc are a few notable ones that result in fines. There are chances that these crimes may be upgraded by the traffic officials to traffic courts rather than settling off through traffic tickets. This usually depends on the demeanor of the driver.

Traveling without a valid license, traveling in uninsured vehicles, possessing fake registration identities for the vehicle and road taxes for the vehicles left unpaid etc are some of the crimes that are settled only in traffic courts. In such cases, the traffic police officials issue a traffic ticket to the concerned driver and summon them to the traffic courts on specific days. Failure to obey this is considered a serious crime and may result in the person being detained.

The above mentioned crimes and traffic ticket issuing methods are followed in a majority of the countries. The list includes the United States, Canada, Cuba and other countries of North America, England, Scotland, France Italy and Germany among others. Certain other countries like India, Pakistan, China, Russia etc follow a similar kind of strategy expect for the fact that they do not issue tickets but settle of the issues through on the spot fines. Some countries around the world use a “traffic points” system wherein the drivers accumulate points for each crime they commit and at a point of time when they reach an unacceptable level, their license stands cancelled and serve a permanent infraction from riding vehicles any further.

Crime Never Pays

Crime is a bad thing. And the previous sentence was an understatement, and an inaccurate description of the concept of Crime.

When someone commits a crime he or she, for sure, has broken a law that applies to the place and situation he or she is in. The principal statement of crime is that, if there is a law that is broken, there must be retribution, or justice meted.

Quick question. You run a red light. This means you have broken traffic laws. Does this mean you are a criminal?
Probably not.

If that were so, then probably three-quarters of the U.S.’s driving population would be criminals. Luckily, this is not the case. Crime, in a broad sense, refers to acts that violate political or moral law. An even more specific definition of Crime is the violation of criminal law.

Since running a red light is a violation of traffic laws and not criminal laws, we aren’t that ready to label more that half of the drivers on the streets today as criminals.

The general rules of defining crime may vary from country to country, culture to culture.

“Actus Reus and Mens Rea”, yes, I know. Two words that don’t really mean anything to most laypeople. Actus Reus means “guilty action.” This means an act of crime has been committed. Mens rea means “guilty mind.” This means there was malicious intentions by a party. Generally, for an act to be counted as a crime, both concepts must be present.

Corpus Delicti. Some people are as guilty of a crime as can be. But somehow, you find them free of guilt in the court of law. Usually, this is because there has been no corpus delicti found (Yes, more Latin words…). Without corpus delicti (or “proof of a crime”) there can be no prosecution of a crime.

Assisting a Crime. It may also be a crime to conspire in order to commit other crimes, or helping others to commit crimes (in which case one becomes an accomplice).

In some systems, the simple association for organizing a crime is punished. Roles that accomplices play include being a ‘lookout,’ or simply assisting in the communications of criminals in committing crimes.

Aborted Plans? In some areas, the attempt alone to commit a crime may be punished, even if the crime is not completed. For instance, it is generally a crime to attempt to murder someone, even if one has not succeeded in doing so.

The Insane Way Out. Most western systems do not punish to the full extent individuals who commit crimes unintentionally or are not yet of legal age. Those who have been proven to be insane at the time of the crime are examples of such.

Since insane people are said to not have proper control of their decision making faculties, no malicious intent can be accused against them.

When proof of a crime can be found, person can be put on trial for the criminal act. This allows the suspect to prove innocence, or for the court to prove his or her guilt. If found guilty, the person is now subject to the punishment accorded to him or her by the state.

Committing a crime is no joke. And being accused of such isn’t either. A good understanding of the basic concepts of the law makes understanding, appreciating, and obeying the law a more straightforward and appealing endeavor.

New Thoughts on how to Reduce Drug Usage and Crime

Crime is becoming rampant due to drug usage. Drug usage is becoming rampant due to those wanting to escape from responsibility. Escape from responsibility is becoming rampant because of the tyranny of the law and legal system in our country. The legal system and the laws and lawyers are becoming more active and domineering because of crime. It is a self-feeding system and as all self-feeding systems it needs to have a brake put on it at some point.

The things that have been tried in the past won’t work. It needs to have some innovative thinking brought to bear on the problem. Different ideas need to be brainstormed as to what place in the links between these factors the stopgap should be put.

Let’s take the first problem, that of crime becoming rampant because of the need for drugs. People are using drugs to replace God in their lives. They have lost the ability to trust society or religion for any answers to their problems and to answer their unanswered questions for them.

By using the drugs, they feel powerful enough that they do not need to be dependant on society and its educational practices or the churches and their educational practices. They simply determine, then to create their own society. The more that fall into this drug culture, the stronger it becomes. If not stopped it can become a culture of great power, as the taking of drugs eliminates the conscience which is what the spiritual path is all about, you remember. When the conscience is eliminated and in most cases destroyed by the taking of drugs, then crime is rampant within the culture, even against other members of the drug culture. They do not just commit crime against those not taking drugs, but the elimination of the conscience allows them to commit crime even against their own, be it mother, father, brother, sister or friend.

The taking of drugs destroys any hope of their soul having any influence over the form. The drugs themselves actually kill off brain cells. The same is true of all drugs, be it nicotine from tobacco or alcohol or any other of the drugs now in use. They all will prevent clear thinking.

Our government has tried every way they can think of to stop drug trafficking. Nothing has worked. Perhaps the answer is legalization. This would certainly stop the huge amounts of money that exchange hands. This would stop the high street cost and therefore the need to commit crimes to get the money to buy drugs.

It is a known fact that when something is out of reach it becomes very desirable. This is true for all humans. Perhaps this is the only way to gain control of the drug problem is to lose control. Sometimes this is what it takes. This would put the problem directly where it belongs, each person taking direct responsibility from the age of twelve on as to whether he wanted to live his life in a drug haze, or to be completely free of mind altering contaminants. There hasn’t been an aggressive enough campaign from the correct angles on this subject. It needs to be approached from an educational and spiritual viewpoint combined.

The next link in the chain is that of crime to obtain the money to buy the drugs. Drugs are slave masters. They entail loss of freedom because of the ability to be addictive. Crime can also be addictive. Once a person “gets away with a crime” it becomes a powerful stimulus in his mind to know or think, anyway, that he has outwitted those seemingly much more mentally powerful than he is.

Therefore, those trying to stop crime need to learn to think like a criminal. There needs to be schooling given that gives the law enforcement officers the ability to think like a criminal.

There also has to be a powerful goal to be obtained. One suggestion would be financial bonuses for law enforcement officers for directly being responsible for catching criminals.

If it isn’t always possible to determine who is responsible for solving the case, for instance in a case as big as the Oklahoma bombing, the reward money should go to the victims families.

Where will the reward money come from? There are many sources. One suggestion would be from minor traffic violations. In other words, an increase in minor traffic offenses such as parking tickets, speeding, not wearing seat belts, etc. This puts the responsibility right back into the hands of the people who will benefit from a reduction overall in crime. It will come from the people who want to have a crime free country giving to the victims of crime or to the fund that will honor the people who catch the criminals.

The next place in the linkage between all this is in the law and the lawyers, those making the laws and those hired to protect and defend people who have been accused of breaking the law. The lawyers need to understand how the mind of someone works who is out to “get what they can” from situations that should never be defendable in a court of law. These are the people who do not want to take any responsibility for themselves.

One case I can think of are those who sue a restaurant over coffee that is too hot. Every mother teaches her child to be aware of hot drinks. What kind of a mother would she be if she did not do this? Have these people forgotten what they learned at their mother’s knee? The responsibility in this case is clearly their own. There are many other instances where this is happening.

Lawyers need to attend a school of drama where they act out many different roles of being in business or offering services where they are “sued” by other lawyers in the school for things that will immediately seem ridiculous and point up where all this is leading. There needs to be much more control over lawyers by lawyers as to whether they take these shoddy cases. They are, of course, after the money these cases will bring. There needs to be a stop gap put into the rewards these lawsuits bring. The profession of law needs to police itself. Once again we come back to education through acting out the roles of those you are offering service to.

This is a new direction that education needs to take at every step in our lives. Walking a mile in the other person’s shoes, learning how the mind of a criminal works. Those who sue for ridiculous reasons are just as much a criminal as those who rob a bank. Those who take on these cases are just as guilty. What they are all doing is hurting everyone and feeding, in a round robin manner, the monster of money. Medical lawsuits are some of the worst. Fraud is another big crime, almost as bad as murder. Courses in responsibility need to be implemented in the schooling of our children because it obviously isn’t coming from the parents. They didn’t get it themselves so cannot teach it.